The objective of this module is to review, for the benefit of relay personnel, the responsibilities of the power system operators and the activities that take place in the energy control center. The operation of protection schemes is of vital importance to the correct functioning of the power system. Complete cooperation between power system operators and relay personnel is essential, and communication must be maintained in both directions. After study of this course and the associated workbook, participants should be able to understand the following overall concepts and apply them to their day-to-day work activities. They will also be able to answer related test questions on these subjects: The overall objectives of the power system operator, Clearance procedures, i.e. isolation of equipment, Frequency control: economic load dispatch, Daily load forecast, Daily generation schedule, including spinning reserve, System overload, falling frequency, load shedding, Inter-ties to neighbouring utilities, power interchange, Generation unit characteristics, i.e. type of prime mover, Incremental cost of generation, Rate of start-up and load change availability, Frequency control by AGC (automatic generation control), Turbine governor droop characteristic, Generator load angle, Control of excitation, reactive power, Transmission line impedance characteristics, Effect of conductor resistance, i.e. heating, Shunt capacitance, charging current, Ferranti effect, Special switching procedure on long lines, Inductive voltage drop along transmission lines, Shunt capacitors and shunt reactors, Power angle across transmission lines, Effect of transmission line voltage on power transfer, Power transfer distribution through a complex network, Power angle limit for stability, System operator actions to improve system stability, Effect of equipment outages on system operation, Planned outages, system operation precautions, Forced outages; states of 'alert' and 'emergency', System separation, i.e. islanding, Energy center communications, Energy center information presentation.
If you are taking this course for NERC credit, the following credits will be reported.
NERC CE HOURS: CE HOURS = 4.00 OPS Topics=4.00 Standards=0.00 Simulation=0.00 EO=4.00
- Trainees will be able to describe the principles that govern system operation.
- Trainees will be able to describe the responsibilities of system operators and load dispatchers.
- Trainees will be able to describe the limitations imposed on system operators by the actual operating conditions of the system's generating plant.
- Trainees will be able to explain the limitations imposed on system operators by the transmission network, including load transfer, stability and voltage control constraints.
- Trainees will be able to describe what is meant by 'normal operation'.
- Trainees will be able to describe the effects of abnormal operating conditions.
- Trainees will be able to explain actions the system operator, with the help of others, can take to minimize the potential for major outages and system separation when the system is operating in an abnormal state.
SEGMENT A - CIRCUIT BREAKERSSEGMENT B - RECLOSERS AND CIRCUIT SWITCHERSSEGMENT C - CHARACTERISTICS OF FUSES
End of Course Instructions
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